O’Neill Institute, Foundation for the National Institutes of Health, University of Cape Town  |  November 1, 2023

Read the Publication

The O’Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law (O’Neill Institute), a WHO Collaborating Center, in partnership with the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) and the University of Cape Town (UCT) in an effort to support the World Health Assembly and the Intergovernmental Negotiating Body, convened leading authorities on the development and deployment of emergency countermeasures, namely vaccines, diagnostics, and treatments. These experts, representing every WHO region in disciplines as diverse as global health, law, human rights, biomedical science, financial services, civil society, intellectual property, the life sciences industry, clinical trial design, government, retail health, patient advocacy, the environment, academia, and health equity, collaborated to inform the WHO, policymakers, Member States, and the public as the agreement is negotiated. The list of contributors is provided as Annex 1. The list of our guiding questions is provided as Annex 2.

This report summarises the major themes that arose across the convening for use by policymakers and the international community as they consider how to move forward. The organisers have also incorporated additional context, content from literature that experts submitted along with their follow-on reflections after the convening, case studies that illustrate points made during the meeting, and additional options for the pandemic agreement based on the text the INB released after the convening.

This summary report is not meant as a consensus document, but as a compilation of the ideas and diverse perspectives offered by experts who are participating in their individual capacity, not as representatives of their respective organisations. Presenting the landscape of views is intentional and no expert is expected to endorse every single point contained in the report. In fact, it is likely that every expert will disagree with various assertions incorporated herein. Moreover, language included in this document does not imply institutional endorsement by the organisations that participants represent.

All sessions proceeded under Chatham House rules. The O’Neill Institute, the FNIH, and UCT facilitated the discussions. Portions of the project were funded by grants from the FNIH’s Pandemic Relief Fund and the Notkins Biomedical Research Fund through support to the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health. For the avoidance of doubt, this summary does not necessarily reflect the views or positions of the participants, their institutions, the O’Neill Institute, the FNIH, or UCT.

The organisers express their deep gratitude to the experts who provided their insights and advice to this convening, especially so given a short timeline to be responsive to the INB discussion. Each has performed a public service and feels deeply about creating a future where the highest attainable level of health can be realised for all.

Read the report here.