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Letter to Congress on WHO Withdrawal from Public Health, Law and International Relations Leaders

750 scholars and experts in global public health, U.S. constitutional law, and international law and relations wrote to Congress in opposition to U.S. withdrawal from WHO.

June 30, 2020

The Honorable James Risch
Chair, Committee on Foreign Relations
United States Senate

The Honorable Bob Menendez
Ranking Member, Committee on Foreign Relations
United States Senate

The Honorable Eliot Engel
Chair, Committee on Foreign Affairs
United States House of Representatives

The Honorable Michael McCaul
Ranking Member, Committee on Foreign Affairs
United States House of Representatives

Dear Senators Risch and Menendez and Representatives Engel and McCaul:

The President has declared his intent to withdraw the U.S. from the World Health Organization (WHO). We are scholars and experts with long experience in global public health, U.S. constitutional law and international law and relations. As we outline below, the President lacks the legal authority to withdraw without congressional participation and approval. We therefore write to you with our deep concerns about the immediate hazards to health, safety, and security in the United States and globally from cutting ties with WHO. The WHO requires reforms, but as a founding member and the largest financial contributor, the U.S. is best poised to lead in these reforms if it remains in the WHO.

Withdrawing from or cutting funding to the WHO during a global pandemic would be a dangerous action for global health and U.S. national interests. Withdrawal cannot legally take effect for at least a year and requires the US to pay its outstanding contribution. Congress has the power to prevent this decision from going forward, and must not be silent and must not wait. We ask your committees, and other committees with jurisdiction over this matter, to hold hearings promptly to address the question of whether the attempt to unilaterally withdraw from the WHO is legal or in the national interest. We further look to your leadership on additional congressional action, including appropriating the full amount that the United States promised to WHO in FY2021 and passing a resolution expressly prohibiting withdrawal. Exiting from the WHO is antithetical to U.S. health and national security interests. COVID-19 has proven how the zoonotic leap of a single virus anywhere in the world can result in health and economic catastrophe in the U.S.

It is not overstatement to say that withdrawal will likely cost lives, American and foreign. Once outside the WHO, the U.S. would lose access to the WHO’s global system for sharing critical outbreak data and vaccines, slowing U.S. ability to return to normalcy from COVID-19, and to prepare and react to future pandemics. The rest of the world would be at heightened risk, too. The U.S. funds the largest portion of the WHO’s Health Emergencies Program, meaning that funding for testing and contact tracing, building health workforces, and vaccine development would be lost. Second or third waves of COVID-19 cases could repeatedly overwhelm health care systems and result in far more lives lost. When international travel resumes, many of these cases would find their way to the U.S., threatening Americans. Beyond COVID-19, the WHO will have less capacity to detect and control future outbreaks without U.S. support, marking a new era of pandemic risk. As COVID-19 has so vividly shown us, an uncoordinated response to health dangers beyond our borders will gravely affect the lives of those living in the U.S.

A number of other WHO programs would suffer enormously under U.S. withdrawal, especially as many global health resources are being redirected to fight COVID-19. Historically, the U.S. has served as a global health leader and the largest WHO donor (providing about 15% of its budget, or approximately $450 million annually). The U.S. has helped fund such initiatives as polio eradication, child nutrition, vaccines, HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis. Pulling funding could reverse hard-won progress and erode the ability of the U.S. to shape and lead policy. For example, efforts to eradicate polio over the last two decades have reduced global cases by 99.9%, but loss of U.S. funding could potentially allow annual global polio cases to jump from a few hundred to 200,000 within a decade. This work has progressed with global leadership from Rotary Clubs in the U.S. and worldwide, partnering with WHO. Though the U.S. may attempt to remain a global health leader by rerouting funding directly to countries, or through global public-private partnerships, it will have far less ability to shape rules (such as the International Health Regulations), norms (such as the WHO Priority Bacterial Pathogen List), and programs. Even the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the U.S.’s signature achievement in responding to HIV/AIDS, has relied on WHO to deliver health messages, ensure quality medications, and set health workforce standards. As U.S. global health funding and leadership falters, the U.S. will lose capacity to engage in global health diplomacy, with China filling the leadership vacuum created by our departure.

Unilateral withdrawal from WHO also raises significant separation of powers concerns, for the President lacks the legal authority to do so without Congress. With the Constitution silent on the process of withdrawing from a treaty, the best understanding of the Constitution is a “mirror principle,” under which the same process the U.S. government uses to enter a treaty is required to withdraw from it. The United States joined WHO through a 1948 joint resolution of Congress. Therefore, a joint resolution would be required to withdraw.

Unilateral withdrawal from WHO raises separation of powers concerns for another reason as well. In Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer (1952), Justice Jackson famously wrote, “When the President takes measures incompatible with the expressed or implied will of Congress, his power is at its lowest ebb.” By unilaterally withdrawing from WHO, the President would be acting against the implied will of Congress.

In the joint resolution to join WHO, Congress set two conditions on withdrawing. First, withdrawal requires a year’s notice. Thus, any effort by the Trump Administration to withdraw could not take effect before July, 2021 at the earliest. Second, the United States must pay WHO dues in full for WHO’s current fiscal year. As Congress holds the power of the purse, this latter condition requires congressional action. Congress therefore clearly intended to retain a role in any decision to withdraw from WHO; it did not cede unilateral authority to the President. To ensure that the President may not claim that Congress’s FY2021 appropriations to WHO is acquiescing in or approving the President’s attempted withdrawal, we recommend that Congress expressly state both its opposition to withdrawal and its unambiguous support for continued U.S. membership.

A decision to withdraw the U.S. from or cut U.S. funding to WHO would threaten the health security of Americans as well as all other nations and could dismantle decades of global health progress. The public’s health as well as respect for our separation of powers requires congressional leadership on this question. We call on Congress to hold hearings on a matter vital to U.S. and global health security.

Sincerely,

*Affiliations listed for identification purposes only and do not reflect institutional endorsement

Lawrence O. Gostin

Linda D. & Timothy J. O’Neill Professor of Global Health Law, Georgetown Law

 

Harold Hongju Koh

Sterling Professor of International Law, Yale Law School

 

Matthew M. Kavanagh

Assistant Professor of Global Health, Georgetown University

 

Georges C. Benjamin

Executive Director, American Public Health Association

 

Elizabeth H. Bradley

President, Vassar College

 

Michelle A. Williams

Dean, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

 

Victor J. Dzau

President, National Academy of Medicine

 

Sten H. Vermund

Dean, Yale School of Public Health

 

James Curran

Dean, Emory University Rollins School of Public Health

 

Kevin Outterson

Professor of Law, Boston University School of Law

 

William Foege

Former Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Professor Emeritus, Emory University

 

Patricia Davidson

Dean, Johns Hopkins School of Nursing

 

Margaret Hamburg

Former Director, Food and Drug Administration; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Medicine

 

Ambassador Mark Dybul

Georgetown University

 

Perry N. Halkitis

Dean, Rutgers School of Public Health

 

Anne-Marie Slaughter

CEO, New America

 

Jeffrey P. Koplan

Former Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; VP for Global Health, Emory University

 

Ashish K. Jha

Faculty Director, Harvard Global Health Institute

 

Ambassador Eric Goosby

Professor of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco

 

Julie L. Gerberding

Former Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Co-Chair, CSIS Commission on Health Security

 

Ambassador Jimmy Kolker

Georgetown University

 

Wendy Parmet

Matthews Distinguished University Professor of Law, Northeastern University School of Law

 

Peter Hotez

Dean, National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor Medical College

 

Joshua M. Sharfstein,

Vice Dean, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

 

Sarah Gehlert

President, American Academy of Social Work and Social Welfare

Dean, University of Southern California School of Social Work

 

Lindsay Wiley

Professor of Law, American University Washington College of Law

 

Scott Burris

Professor of Law, Temple Law School

 

Joanne Epps    

Provost, Temple University

 

Keith Martin

Executive Director, Consortium of Universities for Global Health

 

Stephen Morrison

Senior Vice President, Center of Strategic and International Studies

 

Claudio Grossman

Dean Emeritus, American University Washington College of Law

 

Jorge Delva

Dean, Boston University School of Social Work     

 

Laurence B. Gardner     

Executive Dean, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine

 

Al Sommer      

Dean Emeritus, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

 

Ezekiel J. Emanuel

Vice Provost, University of Pennsylvania

 

Janet K. Levit   

President, University of Tulsa

 

Patricia D. White

Dean Emerita, University of Miami School of Law

 

Chris Beyrer

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

 

Jeremy M. Konyndyk

Center for Global Development

 

Amanda Glassman

Center for Global Development

 

Jennifer Prah Ruger

University of Pennsylvania

 

John T. Monahan

Georgetown University

 

Carlos Del Rio

Emory University Rollins School of Public Health

 

Wafaa El-Sadr

Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health

 

William W. Burke-White

University of Pennsylvania

 

Matiangai Sirleaf          

University of Maryland Law School

 

Tom Ginsburg  

University of Chicago Law School

 

Oona Hathaway

Yale Law School

 

Sergio Puig

University of Arizona James Rogers College of Law

 

Jeremy Shiffman

Johns Hopkins University

 

Christopher Robertson

University of Arizona

 

Peter D. Jacobson

University of Michigan School of Public Health

 

Robert I. Field

Drexel University

 

Benjamin Mason Meier

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

 

Anand Parekh

Chief Medical Advisor, Bipartisan Policy Center

 

David H. Peters

Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health

 

Marian W. Wentworth  

Management Sciences for Health

 

Kelly D. Brownell

Duke University

 

Howard K. Koh

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

 

May C. Wang

UCLA

 

John R. Baumann

Indiana University

 

John Packham

University of Nevada Reno School of Medicine

 

Gavin Yamey
Duke University

 

Brook K. Baker

Northeastern University School of Law

 

Lance Gable

Wayne State University Law School

 

Nicolas Terry

Indiana University

 

Micah Berman

Ohio State University

 

Aziza Ahmed

Northeastern University School of Law

 

Theodore M. Brown

University of Rochester

 

Sidney D. Watson

Saint Louis University School of Law

 

Sam F. Halabi

University of Missouri

 

Charles L. Bosk

University of Pennsylvania

 

Don Moore

Vanderbilt University School of Medicine

 

Timothy Westmoreland

Georgetown Law

 

Brian Citro

Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

 

Cynthia Ho

Loyola University Chicago School of Law

 

Diane E. Meier

Mount Sinai School of Medicine

 

Jody Early

University of Washington

 

Leo Beletsky

Northeastern University

 

Sofia Gruskin

USC Keck School of Medicine; Gould School of Law

 

Tony Yang

George Washington University

 

Nancy Krieger

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

 

Thomas Wm Mayo

Southern Methodist University Dedman School of Law

 

Katayoun Chamany

The New School

 

Claire Wendland

University of Wisconsin-Madison

 

Sarah H. Cleveland

Columbia Law School

 

Samuel Moyn

Yale Law School

 

Eric A. Friedman

Georgetown Law

 

Paula Braveman

University of California, San Francisco

 

Kal Raustiala

UCLA Law School

 

David Jones

Harvard University

 

Mark Hall

Wake Forest University

 

Mark Wu

Harvard Law School

 

Elizabeth Tobin-Tyler

Brown University Warren Alpert Medical School

 

Carol Gilligan

New York University

 

Joanne Csete

Columbia University

 

Jerome H. Reichman

Duke Law School

 

Jonathan Oberlander

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine

 

Michael K. Gusmano

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

 

Charles Holmes

Georgetown University

 

Tonia Poteat

University of North Carolina

 

Sonda Oppewal

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

 

James Macinko

UCLA

 

Michelle Mello

Stanford University

 

Jose A. Tapia

Drexel University

 

Peter A. Bell

Syracuse University College of Law

 

Brian H. Childs

Mercer University School of Medicine

 

Melissa Ballengee Alexander

University of Wyoming College of Law

 

Cheryl Erwin

Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center

 

Megan Kasimatis Singleton

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

 

Alexander M. Capron

University of Southern California 

 

Flavio F. Marsiglia

Arizona State University

 

Monica Hakimi

University of Michigan Law School

 

Jonathan D. Moreno

University of Pennsylvania

 

John S. Santelli

Columbia University

 

Pamela J. Murray

West Virginia University

 

Joan H. Krause

University of North Carolina School of Law

 

Kurt B. Nolte

University of New Mexico

 

Christina S. Ho

Rutgers Law School

 

Frank Pasquale

University of Maryland

 

Barak Richman

Duke University

 

Natsu Taylor Saito

Georgia State University

 

Thaddeus Mason Pope

Mitchell Hamline School of Law

 

Thomas Rundall

University of California, Berkeley

 

Jonathan Todres

Georgia State University College of Law

 

Renee E. Sieving

University of Minnesota

 

Marsha Cohen

University of California Hastings College of Law

 

Gregg Bloche

Georgetown Law

 

Ellen Eisen

University of California, Berkeley

 

Frank Zimring

University of California, Berkeley

 

David M. Frankford

Rutgers Law School

 

Dermot Groome

Pennsylvania State University Dickinson Law

 

Usha Ramakrishnan

Emory University

 

Peter Brown

Emory University

 

Donna M. Staton

American Academy of Pediatrics

 

William Dow

University of California at Berkeley

 

Jan L. Shifren

Harvard Medical School

 

Gene W. Matthews

University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health

 

Kathleen Hoke

University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

 

Paulina Lopez

The Connecticut Public Health Association

 

Michelle Cosby

Temple University School of Law

 

Ross Silverman

Indiana University

 

Charles E. Mercier

University of Vermont Medical Center

 

Carole A. Tucker

Temple University

 

Lewis B. Hershey

Eastern Michigan University

 

Anthony D. Moulton

School of Public Health, University of Minnesota

 

Shan Mohammed

Northeastern University

 

Sam Friedman

NYU Grossman School of Medicine

 

Debra J. Pelto

Access Health Research, LLC

 

Meghan Gannon

Thomas Jefferson University

 

Donna Vallone

Truth Initiative

 

Cristen Harris

University of Washington

 

Taylor M. Black

Rutgers University

 

Bonnie M. Vest

University at Buffalo

 

Matthew E Rossheim

George Mason University

 

Barbara Pfeffer Billauer

University of Porto

 

Fern P. Nelson

Veterans Health Care System

 

Dr. Natasha Patterson

The College of New Jersey

 

Gauri Bhattacharya

Jackson State University

 

Andrea Seykora

Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research

 

Eli Siegel

Tufts University

 

Rachel L. Berkowitz

University of California, Berkeley

 

Carrie Shaver

Indiana University-Purdue University Columbus

 

Eric Dunipace

Harvard University

 

Ryan Bradley

National University of Natural Medicine

 

Loren Galvao

University of Wisconsin- Milwaukee

 

Matthew S. Chrisman

University of Missouri-Kansas City

 

Allison Karpyn

University of Delaware

 

Tom E Trabin

Behavioral Health Concepts

 

Charles D. Treser

University of Washington School of Public Health

 

Lenis Chen-Edinboro

University of North Carolina Wilmington

 

Lawrence D. Budnick

Rutgers New Jersey Medical School

 

Jeanne A. Matthews

Marymount University

 

Pietra Check

Boston University School of Medicine

 

Morgan Stanley

University of Louisville

 

Christin Gilmer

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

 

Stephen J. Rosenfeld

Freeport Research Systems

 

Michael P. Foley

Washington State Department of Labor and Industries

 

John Duke

Living Stories

 

Rhonda F. Giarretto

Alameda County Public Health Department

 

Hannah MacDowell

Ohio Department of Health

 

Katherine Wasson

Loyola University Chicago

 

Kacie Blackman

California State University Northridge

 

Ashley Weiland

University of Wisconsin- Milwaukee

 

Michael Sholinbeck

University of California Berkeley

 

Jeni Miller

Global Climate and Health Alliance

 

Debbie Urbanek

American Red Cross

 

Mary Dallas Allen

University of Alaska Anchorage School of Social Work

 

Dr. Kevin Murdock

Hillsborough County Public Schools

 

Ezequiel A. Andrade

Harbor UCLA Medical Center

 

Meghan Eagen

University of Washington

 

Katherine Luzuriaga

University of Massachusetts Medical School

 

Charlotte Nwogwugwu

University of Maryland

 

Victoria Zigmont

Southern Connecticut State University

 

Rachel Vickers-Smith

University of Louisville

 

Catherine F. Solomon

Boston University School of Social Work

 

Gillian Silver

Morgan State University

 

Erika Manu

University of Michigan

 

Zachary M. Ehrlich

New Jersey Department of Health

 

Cynthia Ciluffo

Boston University

 

Michelle Willoughby

New York Presbyterian Hospital

 

Heidi M. Feldman

Stanford University

 

Michael Friedman

American University of Antigua College of Medicine

 

Polly Walker

Johns Hopkins University

 

Professor Jules Epstein

Temple University Beasley School of Law

 

Hina Shaikh

George Washington University Milken Institute School of Public Health

 

Sara Jacobson

Temple University Beasley School of Law

 

Richard Daynard

Northeastern University

 

Kenneth H. Rabin

CUNY Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy

 

Jonathan C. Lipson

Temple University Beasley School of Law

 

Kelly K. Dineen

Creighton University

 

Ana Santos Rutschman

Saint Louis University School of Law

 

Nadia N. Sawicki

Loyola University Chicago School of Law

 

Jennifer D. Oliva

Seton Hall University School of Law

 

Jennifer Lee

Temple University Law School

 

Gwendolyn Roberts Majette

Cleveland Marshall College of Law

 

Jaya Ramji-Nogales

Temple University Law School

 

Michael S. Sinha

Northeastern University School of Law

 

Heidi Grunwald

Temple University

 

Ana B. Amaya

Pace University

 

Liza Vertinsky

Emory Law School

 

Seema Mohapatra

Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law

 

Professor Ruqaiijah Yearby

Saint Louis University

 

Richard K. Greenstein

Temple University

 

Diane E. Hoffmann

University of Maryland Carey School of Law

 

John Packham

University of Nevada Reno School of Medicine

 

Kathy L Cerminara

Nova Southeastern University Shepard Broad College of Law

 

Cason D. Schmit

Texas A&M University School of Public Health

 

Linda C. Fentiman

Pace University Elisabeth Haub School of Law

 

Mark C Edberg

George Washington University Milken Institute School of Public Health

 

Dexter Gulick

University of Arizona

 

Richard Weinmeyer

Northwestern University

 

Rachel Rebouche

Temple University Beasley School of Law

 

Nancy J. Burke

University of California, Merced

 

Robin W. Simon

Wake Forest University

 

Leslie P. Francis

University of Utah

 

Trude Bennett

University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill

 

Joe Feinglass

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

 

Jonathan Noel

Connecticut Public Health Association

 

Elizabeth Glass Geltman

CUNY School of Public Health

 

Daniel Cook

University of Nevada Reno

 

Tabashir Z. Nobari

California State University, Fullerton

 

Paula Tavrow

UCLA Fielding School of Public Health

 

Corey S. Davis

Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University

 

Andrew Goldstein

NYU

 

Rebecca Wurtz

University of Minnesota

 

Jonathan Kahn

Northeastern University

 

Sarah Davis

Center for Patient Partnerships

 

Janet L Dolgin

Hofstra University Maurice A. Deane School of Law

 

Alex Pirie

Immigrant Service Providers Group/Health

 

Page Dobbs

University of Arkansas

 

Dr. Tanisha Garcia

California State University, Fresno

 

Susan E. Bell

Drexel University

 

Daniel Goldstein

The University of Massachusetts Amherst

 

Valerie Gutmann Koch

University of Chicago

 

Fred W. Rottnek

Saint Louis University

 

Tomar Pierson-Brown

University of Pittsburgh School of Law

 

Teresa Fung

Simmons University

 

Charles L. Bosk

University of Pennsylvania

 

Tara Sklar

University of Arizona James E. Rogers College of Law

 

Dena Davis

Lehigh University

 

Mary T. White

Wright State University School of Medicine

 

Mark Meaney

University of Colorado

 

Cindy Sousa

Bryn Mawr College

 

Lindsay K. Cloud

Temple University Beasley School of Law

 

Abby Rosenberg

University of Washington

 

Jonathan J. Darrow

Harvard Medical School

 

Nevin M. Summers

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

 

Melissa M. Goldstein

George Washington University

 

Lois Shepherd

University of Virginia

 

Sonia M. Suter

The George Washington University Law School

 

Jon Macy

Indiana University School of Public Health

 

Virginia Adams O’Connell

Moravian College

 

Andrea G. Barthwell

Encounter Medical Group

 

Emily Nicklett

University of Michigan

 

Barbara E. Biere

Brigham Health and Harvard Medical School

 

Steven P. Wallace

UCLA Fielding School of Public Health

 

Sana Loue

Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine

 

Michael C. Barnes

Center for U.S. Policy

 

Carl H. Coleman

Seton Hall University School of Law

 

Steven Joffe

University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine

 

Carolyn Pointer

Southern Illinois University School of Law

 

Jon F. Merz

University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine

 

Carol Easley Allen

Twin Solutions LLC

 

Yajnaseni Chakraborti

Temple University

 

Claire Chaumont

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

 

Enrique R. Pouget

CUNY, Brooklyn College

 

Seth F. Kreimer

University of Pennsylvania Law School

 

Benton Heath

Temple Beasley Law School

 

Thomas J. Stopka

Tufts University School of Medicine

 

Lisa M. Lee

Virginia Tech

 

Jeanne M. Sears

University of Washington School of Public Health

 

Robert Darnton

Harvard University

 

Cheryl Bettigole

Philadelphia Department of Public Health

 

Julie Cederbaum

University of Southern California

 

Elizabeth Pendo

Saint Louis University School of Law

 

Margaret deGuzman

Temple University Beasley School of Law

 

Juliet Sorensen

Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

 

Adrienne R. Ghorashi

Center for Public Health Law Research

 

Robert T. Carroll

Association of Nurses in AIDS Care

 

Todd Sagin

Sagin Healthcare Consulting

 

Ronald Manderscheid

Ntl Association of County Behavioral Health & Developmental Disability Directors

 

John R. Stone

Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska

 

Paula Nurius

University of Washington

 

Anne Dressel

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee College of Nursing

 

Amanda Reddy

National Center for Healthy Housing

 

Gwen Chodur

University of California Davis

 

James Herbert Williams

Arizona State University

 

Shasta McMillen

University of California, Davis

 

Scott Bryant-Comstock

Children’s Mental Health Network

 

Mary L. C. Kovoor

Phelps Hospital Northwell Health

 

Michael D OConnor

Henrico Area Mental Health and Developmental Services

 

Traci Owens

Darke County Health Department

 

Nicole Huberfeld

Boston University

 

Claire Johnson

National University of Health Sciences

 

Dr. Robert L. King

Med-Tech Health Partners

 

Ben Levenson

Justice is Global

 

Patricia Illingworth

Northeastern University

 

Yi Lu

Boston University

 

Jennifer A. Wagman

UCLA Fielding School of Public Health

 

Lori Bruce

Yale University

 

Lisa Rauch

San Jose State University

 

Sallie Allgood

Duke University

 

Jennifer Kibicho

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

 

Brietta Clark

Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles

 

Jason A. Smith

California State University, East Bay

 

Arnab Mukherjea

California State University, East Bay

 

Samuel Moyn

Yale Law School

 

Sofija Zagarins

Springfield College

 

Emily E. Anderson

Loyola University Chicago

 

David E Jacobs

National Center for Healthy Housing

 

Gina Tripicchio

Temple University

 

Katherine Schwarz

Lehman College and New York Medical College

 

Henry J. Richardson

Temple University Beasley Law School

 

Lara Stemple

UCLA School of Law

 

Paula Braveman

University of California, San Francisco

 

Cecilia B. Duke

Christ Church Episcopal

 

Matilda Johnson

Bethune-Cookman University

 

Erica Freese

University of Arizona

 

William S. Dodge

University of California, Davis School of Law

 

Rob Leflar

University of Arkansas School of Law

 

Bud Nicola

University of Washington School of Public Health

 

Tenaya Jackman

Hawaii Public Health Association

 

Thomas K. Greenfield

Public Health Institute

 

Dr. Daryl Canham

San Jose Staye University

 

Veronica Johnson

University of San Francisco, Master of Public Health Candidate

 

Michael R. Ulrich

Boston University

 

Richard Crume

Urban Health Consultant

 

Linda Forst

University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health

 

Ralph G Steinhardt

George Washington University Law School

 

Jane Witbrodt

Public health Institute, Alcohol Research Group

 

Jessica Goodkind

University of New Mexico

 

Jillian Papa

Action for Healthy Kids

 

Beth Van Schaack

Stanford Law School

 

Beth Rosenberg

Tufts University School of Medicine

 

Dan Bustillos

University of Washington Bothell

 

Ellen K. Murphy

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee School of Nursing

 

Miriam E. Nelson

Tufts University

 

Martin Rafferty

Youth Era

 

Mo West

University of Washington Bothell School of Nursing & Health Studies

 

Christopher H. Wade

University of Washington Bothell

 

Anthony W. Orlando

California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

 

Marsha Presley

A.T. Still University

 

Michael Stanton

California State University, East Bay

 

Dena Herman

UCLA Fielding School of Public Health

 

Erin Stevenson

Eastern Kentucky University

 

Martie Thompson

Clemson University

 

Bethlyn Vergo Houlihan

Boston University School of Social Work

 

Marci Morris

Boston University

 

Elyse I. Summers.

Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs, Inc.

 

Jack Sears

Temple University

 

Lynne H. Man

Regis College

 

Bruce D. Snyder

Health Professionals for a Healthy Climate

 

Kathryn Snyder

Partners in Health

 

Hewitt B. Clark

National Network on Youth Transition

 

Alyson Lofthouse

University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health

 

Elizabeth L.M. Miller

Child Care Health & Safety, LLC

 

Ed Cohen

San Jose State University

 

Patricia A. Bloom

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

 

Hannah K. Allen

Pennsylvania State University

 

Shelley Jung

UCLA Fielding School of Public Health

 

Saskia Popescu

George Mason University

 

Donald Wertlieb

Partnership for Early Childhood Development & Disability Rights (PECDDR)

 

Michele Stine

The Pennsylvania State University

 

Steven Arrigg Koh

Boston College Law School

 

Lauren M. Sauer

Johns Hopkins University

 

Robert M. Gould

Physicians for Social Responsibility, San Francisco Bay Area Chapter

 

Chandrakala Ganesh

California State University, East Bay

 

John M. Barry

Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine

 

Paul Weiden

University of Washington

 

Elliott Currie

University of California, Irvine

 

Milo Puhan

Johns Hopkins University

 

Randall Kuhn

UCLA Fielding School of Public Health

 

Ted R. Miller

Pacific Institute for Research & Evaluation

 

Albertha Nyaku

FHI360

 

Eric K. Layland

The Pennsylvania State University

 

Jennifer Fricas

Seattle University

 

Mallie J. Paschall

Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation

 

David A. Kumpe

University of Colorado School of Medicine

 

Gerald Lazar

Massachusetts Medical Society

 

Angela L. Rasmussen

Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health

 

Richard D. Diamond

Infectious Disease of America

 

Tran Huynh

Drexel university

 

Richard Coker

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine

 

Davidson H. Hamer

Boston University

 

Lauren Spigel

Ariadne Labs, Harvard School of Public Health

 

Sandra Van Calcar

Oregon Health & Science University

 

George E. Lewinnek

University of Massachusetts Medical School

 

Ira A. Morris

Harvard Medical School

 

Anne Glover

UniSA

 

Walter Ian Lipkin

Columbia University

 

Gordon C. Weir

Harvard Medical School

 

Laura Nellums

University of Nottingham

 

Jeanette Jeffrey

University of Maryland

 

Martha Waller

Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation

 

Michael T. Schmeltz

California State University, East Bay

 

Rebecca Parkin

The George Washington University

 

Sheldon G Waugh

US Army Public Health Center

 

William Bernet

Vanderbilt University School of Medicine

 

Elisa A. Hurley

Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research

 

Robert L. Stout

Pacific Institute for Research & Evaluation

 

Charles B. Burrus

City University of New York

 

Diane Casey Crowley

Boston University School of Social Work

 

Fajima Bedran

Homeboy Industries

 

Christine Fishman

Kent State University

 

Daniyel Danica Grancich

USC Keck School of Medicine

 

Neil MacNaughton

University of Dubuque Nursing

 

Steven Edward Gelda

McLean Hospital

 

Kimberly Daniels

HealthCore, Inc

 

John D. Blum

Loyola University Chicago

 

Gary J. Brauner

Mount Sinai NY Icahn School of Medicine

 

Amanda I. Scott

Detroit Recovery Project

 

Donald Willcox

University of Hawaii

 

Nicholas G. Evans

University of Massachusetts Lowell

 

Sophie Hansen

Boston University

 

Laura C. Streichert

One Health Commission

 

Walter Willett

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

 

Lynn E. Fiellin

Yale School of Medicine

 

Sion Harris

Harvard Medical School, Boston Children’s Hospital

 

Do-Quyen Pham

University of Washington

 

June Morrison Jones

Bard Early College

 

Naomi A. Schapiro

University of California, San Francisco

 

Maxine Whittaker

James Cook University

 

Marissa Raymond-Flesch

University of California, San Francisco

 

Andrea J. Hoopes

Kaiser Permanente Washington

 

Matthew Marsom

Public Health Institute

 

Krishna White

Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia

 

Lori Winter

Cooper University Health Care-Cooper Medical School of Rowan University

 

Julie A. Denison

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

 

Mary Ott

Indiana University School of Medicine

 

Rosemary Claire Roden

PennState Health Children’s Hospital

 

Jamie E. Mehringer

Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia

 

Christane Ellen Stahl

University of Illinois at Chicago

 

Laura K. Grubb

Tufts University School of Medicine

 

Brandi Shah

University of Alabama at Birmingham

 

Gordon J Harris

Harvard Medical School

 

Matthew W. Courser

Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation

 

Krishna White

Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia

 

Jessica MacCormac

Society for adolescent health and medicine

 

Laura M. Pinkston Koenigs

University of Massachusetts Medical School-Baystate

 

Katherine Atkinson

University of Massachusetts Medical School

 

Jamie Schwarz

Baystate Medical Center

 

Harry Hoar III

Baystate Health

 

Bethany Spielman

Southern Illinois University School of Medicine

 

Joseph E. Yunis

Pioneer Valley Pediatrics

 

  1. D. Roberts

Baystate Health

 

Kimberley Serpico

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

 

Cherrie Chua

Westfield Pediatrics

 

Abigail N. Harrison

International Association of Adolescent Health

 

Taryn Gal

Michigan Organization on Adolescent Sexual Health (MOASH)

 

Karen Rosewater

Adolescent-Young Adult Medicine

 

Jennifer Heitel

Jennifer Heitel Consulting

 

Peg Tamiso

Boston University

 

Aisha Coursen

Demographic and Health Surveys

 

Caitlin Davie

Temple University Beasley School of Law

 

Ellen M. Wells

Purdue University

 

Dominique R. Williams

Nationwide Children’s Hospital

 

Kata Chillag

Davidson College

 

Noah Nesin

Penobscot Community Health Care

 

Judith E. Tapper

Pioneer Valley Pediatrics

 

Jonas Goldenberg

Boston University School of Social Work

 

Jonathan K. Larsen

Temple University Beasley School of Law

 

Evan Samuel Garber

Temple University Beasley School of Law

 

Nadja G. Peter

Drexel University College of Medicine

 

Alexandra Hess

Temple University

 

Beth Carter

Baystate Children’s Hospital

 

Rebecca L. Hagedorn

West Virginia University

 

Jack Rusley

Brown University/Rhode Island Hospital

 

Supriya Dinesh Mehta

University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health

 

Molly R Sanders

Texas Institute for Excellence in Mental Health

 

Debbie Jan

University of California, Berkeley

 

Renee Spencer

Boston University School of Social Work

 

Chris Ringwalt

Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation

 

Esra Caylan

Baystate Medical Center

 

Paula Condon

Holyoke Pediatric Associates

 

Heather Elizabeth Martinez

Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists

 

Renee Robilliard

Baystate Health

 

Rebecca Lynne Wells

University of Georgia

 

Chad Surber

Baystate Health

 

Pamela J. Burke

Boston Children’s Hospital

 

Marena Sullivan

Boston University

 

Michael S. Lyons

University of Cincinnati College of Medicine

 

Rylin Rodgers

Association of University Centers on Disabilities

 

Carolyn McCarthy

Advocate Aurora Health Care

 

Steven Ratner

University of Michigan Law School

 

Kathryn O’Brien

Baystate Medical Center

 

Irene C. Hjelmervik

RUHS- Public Health

 

Eric J. Sigel

University of Colorado School of Medicine

 

Geoffrey W. Wilkinson

Boston University School of Social Work

 

Susan Brostrup-Jensen

Boston University School of Social Work

 

Hani Serag

University of Texas Medical Branch

 

Vicky Fagan

Public Health Institute – Alcohol Research Group

 

Colette L. Auerswald

University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health

 

Robert K Eckert

CareOne

 

Cydney Marie Murray

Temple University Beasley Law School

 

Katherine Zuk

Temple University

 

Rohini Harvey

Baystate Children’s Hospital

 

Patricia King

Georgetown Law

 

Jorge L. Contreras

University of Utah S.J. Quinney College of Law

 

Martha E. Gaines

University of Wisconsin Law School

 

Kerri McGowan Lowrey

University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

 

Lars Noah

University of Florida

 

Vernellia Randall

The University of Dayton School of Law

 

John Macky Marshall

University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health

 

Sari Bentianov

Rutgers New Jersey Medical School

 

Ann Marie Marciarille

University of Missouri – Kansas City School of Law

 

John E Swartzberg

University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health

 

Gourab Kar

University of California, Berkeley

 

Cliona McHale

University of California, Berkeley

 

Joel W. Grube

Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation

 

Carolyn Goldstein

Baystate Medical Center

 

Sandra McCoy

University of California, Berkeley

 

Sharona Hoffman

Case Western Reserve University School of Law

 

Jordan Paradise

Loyola University Chicago Law School

 

Asa Bradman

University of California, Berkeley

 

Nneka Holder

MedStar Georgetown University Hospital

 

Laura Hermer

Mitchell Hamline School of Law

 

Katrina Abuabara

University of California, San Francisco

 

Nathan Cortez

Southern Methodist University Dedman School of Law

 

Sarah Raifman

University of California, San Francisco

 

Amy L. Weiss

University of South Florida Health

 

Margae Knox

University of California, Berkeley

 

Jay Graham

University of California, Berkeley

 

Christopher E. Czerwonka

Hofstra University School of Law

 

Erin C. Fuse Brown

Georgia State University College of Law

 

Michael Reiff

University of Massachusetts

 

Y.S. (Steve) Lee

Georgia State University School of Law

 

Leonard Syme

University of California, Berkeley

 

David Malcolm Potts

University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health

 

Sarah Anne Reynolds

University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health

 

Raquel E Aldana

University of California at Davis School of Law

 

Christopher Davis

Medical College of Wisconsin

 

Joshua D. Sarnoff

DePaul University

 

Jose Szapocznik

University of Miami

 

Andrea Elena Bonny

The Ohio State University

 

Scott Swartz

University of California, San Francisco

 

Lisa C. Ikemoto

University of California, Davis

 

Sarah Dahlberg

University of California, Berkeley

 

Norma Firestone

University of California, Berkeley

 

Mary W. Miller

Mary W. Miller, LCSW

 

Courtney Anderson

Georgia State University College of Law

 

Michelle Azurin

University of California, Berkeley

 

Ellen Breckenridge

University of Texas Health School of Public Health

 

Charlotte Smith

University of California, Berkeley

 

Anna Mastroianni

University of Washington School of Law

 

Karen Sokal-Gutierrez

University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health

 

Paul A. Diller

Willamette University College of Law

 

Joanna K. Sax

California Western School of Law

 

Nora V. Demleitner

Washington and Lee University School of Law

 

Estefani Barba

University of California, Berkeley

 

Carol S. Wolman

Harvard Medical School

 

Valarie Blake

West Virginia University College of Law

 

Ellen Wright Clayton

Vanderbilt University Medical Center

 

Medha D. Makhlouf

Penn State University – Dickinson Law

 

Carly Hyland

University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health

 

Monica Schwarz Josten

Stanford University

 

Rhonda Barcus

National Rural Health Resource Center

 

Danielle Pelfrey Duryea

Boston University School of Law

 

Lawrence S. Phillips

Emory University School of Medicine

 

Shawn R. Mathis

Loyola Law School Chicago

 

Joanna Luty

Baystate Medical Center

 

Barry R. Furrow

Drexel University Kline School of Law

 

Mary Noel Chavez

UIC School of Public Health

 

Lauren Wagener

Baystate Medical Center

 

Jessica L. Roberts

University of Houston Law Center

 

Steve Klitzman

Peripheral Neuropathy Support Group of Metro DC

 

Allyn Taylor

University of Washington School of Law

 

Kimberly Levitt

Bradbury-Sullivan LGBT Community Center

 

Marie A. Brault

Yale School of Public Health

 

Hadii M. Mamudu.

East Tennessee State University

 

Eric C. Jones

University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston

 

David Ragland

University of California, Berkeley

 

Dabney P. Evans

Emory University

 

Aaron B. Katz

University of Washington School of Public Health

 

Debra A. Schumann

Temple University

 

Maria Elizabeth Sundaram

Emory Rollins School of Public Health

 

Patricia Siplon

Saint Michael’s College

 

Walter A. Orenstein

Emory University School of Medicine

 

Eileen O’Keefe

Boston University

 

Avonlea Rickerson

Detroit Health Department

 

Elizabeth Chalfin

Boston University

 

Kimberly Marohn

Baystate Medical Center

 

Matthew S. Frey

PATH

 

Gregorio Dias

University of California, Berkeley

 

Kate Beatty

East Tennessee State University

 

Donald Zeigler

University of Illinois at Chicago

 

Donald Weinbaum

New Jersey Public Health Association

 

Susan Chasson

Chasson Van Huele Family Foundation

 

Rachel Waford

Emory University

 

Stefanie Iverson Cabral

University of Washington, Bothell

 

Therese McGinn

Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health

 

Margaret M. Flint

Pace University Elisabeth Haub School of Law

 

Jaspal S. Sandhu

University of California, Berkeley

 

Jennifer Raymond

California State University Channel Islands

 

Ann Behrmann

American Academy of Pediatrics

 

Paul F. Walker

Green Cross International

 

Lynette Menezes

University of South Florida

 

Heather B. Edelblute

West Chester University

 

Elsa Pearson

Boston University School of Public Health

 

Robert Gunier

University of California, Berkeley

 

Ghada Farhat

Emory University

 

Hoisum Nguyen

Boston University

 

Miriam F. Weismann

Florida International University

 

Jesse Casanova

USF Health International

 

Stefani N. Baca-Atlas

University of North Carolina School of Social Work

 

Brian W. Jack

Boston University School of Medicine

 

David Daniel Potenziani

University of North Carolina

 

Rafael E. Perez Figueroa

University of Kentucky

 

Heidi West

Global Environmental Health LAB

 

Paul Freeman

Department of Global Health University of Washington Seattle

 

Judy Lewis

University of Connecticut School of Medicine

 

Heidi S. West

UCLA Fielding School of Public Health

 

Ruby Barnard-Mayers

Boston University

 

Mohamed A Mohamed

The George Washington University

 

Benjamin Waterman

University of Maine

 

Grace Turkis

University of California Berkeley

 

Kyana Young

Wake Forest University

 

Arti Patel Varanasi

Advancing Synergy

 

Robert A. Bednarczyk

Emory University Rollins School of Public Health

 

Dr. Russell E. Morgan

National Peace Corps Association

 

Justin Bullock

Lexington-Fayette Co. Health Department

 

Lisa Brockman

Wyoming Medicaid

 

Emily Maistrellis

Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health

 

Theresa Castillo

Teachers College, Columbia University

 

Annekathryn Goodman

Massachusetts General Hospital Harvard

 

Emma Langley

CUNY Graduate School of Public Health & Health Policy

 

Bethany Caruso

Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University

 

Lisa Staimez

Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University

 

Barbara W. Stechenberg

Tufts University School of Medicine

 

Maryann Amodeo

Boston University School of Social Work

 

Andrea Lara

Oregon Health & Sciences University

 

Natalia Rodriguez

Purdue University

 

Debora Bear

The University of New Mexico Hospital

 

Christine Plumb

Justice Resource Institute

 

Melissa Chretien

Chamberlain University

 

Michael F. Greene

Massachusetts General Hospital

 

Thuytien Ly

Massachusetts General Hospital

 

Carrie Coleman

MGH Obstetrics and Gynecology

 

Holly Ruth Khachadoorian-Elia

Massachusetts General Hospital

 

Rebecca M. Miller

Harvard University

 

Kristi Ho

Brandeis University

 

Hannah Thompson

University of California, Berkeley

 

Vanessa Mayanja

Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre

 

Claire Davis

Johns Hopkins University

 

Jocelyn Antonio

Boston University

 

Chelsea Lennox

University of Minnesota

 

Lynne Bartholomew Goltra

Massachusetts General Hospital

 

Richard G MacKenzie

University of Southern California

 

Edgar Lopez

Stanford Health Library

 

Stephanie Marie Cascio

Department of Health and Human Services

 

Patricia Rodney

Partner in Health, Education and Development (PHEAD)

 

Hemali Patel

University of Colorado

 

Laura Korin

Albert Einstein College of Medicine

 

Trevin Lau

Massachusetts General Hospital

 

Mary Crossley

University of Pittsburgh School of Law

 

Shruthi Mahalingaiah

Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health

 

Jennifer L. Schott

Sugarloaf Pediatrics

 

Rushika Conroy

Baystate Children’s Hospital

 

Claudia Borzutzky

USC Keck School of Medicine

 

Erica Sciara

Shoreline Community College

 

Ruth McDermott-Levy

Villanova University Fitzpatrick College of Nursing

 

Wayra J. Salem

Liberty University

 

Charles L. Bormann

Massachusetts General Hospital

 

Jessica Kahn

Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center

 

Cheryl Anderson

Boston Medical Center

 

Immaculate Apchemengich

University of Wisconsin Milwaukee

 

Maximillian V. Rasbold-Gabbard

Massachusetts Department of Public Health

 

Anne M. Althausen Plante

Massachusetts General Hospital

 

Megan Marx Delaney

Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health

 

Lawrence C. Levine

University of the Pacific, McGeorge School of Law

 

Cathey E. Falvo

Physicians for Social Responsibility

 

Cynthia R. Howard

University of Minnesota

 

Jessica D. Gipson

UCLA Fielding School of Public Health

 

Anne Marie Armstrong

Massachusetts General Hospital

 

Ashwini Arumugam

University of Minnesota

 

Timothy D. Lytton

Georgia State University College of Law

 

Michael Willers

The Children’s Heart Center of Western Massachusetts

 

Maayan Leroy-Melamed

Indiana University School of Medicine

 

Nakita Natala

University of Minnesota

 

Daniel Lee

University of Michigan School of Public Health

 

Krista M. Perreira

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

 

Mary Morris

Massachusetts General Hospital

 

Steffi Masilamani

University of Minnesota

 

Solveig A. Cunningham

Emory University

 

Beth K. Thielen

University of Minnesota

 

Sally T. Lowell

University of Colorado

 

Peter Suber

Harvard University

 

Stuart Rennie

University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill

 

Raul Necochea

University of North Carolina School of Medicine

 

Rebecca Rae Anderson

College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center

 

Nasreen Quadri

University of Minnesota

 

John Snyder

Amherst Pediatrics

 

Minda J. Dwyer

Optum Health

 

Leslie Davis

Walkers Point Community Clinic

 

Kristen Eckler

Massachusetts General Hospital

 

Erin Schroeder

Mass General Brigham

 

Emily Heckel

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

 

Phillip Plager

University of Minnesota

 

Marisa Elena Domino

University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill

 

John Hoornbeek

Kent State University

 

Christina Duzyj Buniak

Massachusetts General Hospital

 

Erin Tracy Bradley

Massachusetts General Hospital

 

Amanda N. Kallen

Yale University

 

Paige Noelle Andrews

CDC Foundation

 

Kimani Paul-Emile

Fordham University School of Law

 

Nancy Chapman

Advocates for Better Children’s Diets

 

Deborah Bartz

Harvard Medical School

 

Stephanie Perez Kerkvliet

University of Minnesota

 

Sara Brenner

Baystate Medical Center

 

Audrey Merriam

Yale University

 

Glenn Markenson

Boston Medical Center

 

Kyle MacDonald

NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene

 

Gail E. Henderson

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Medicine

 

Katherine Smith

Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia

 

Beth Cronin

Providence Community Health Center

 

Shanna M. Pellegrin

Virginia Tec

 

Stacey M. Gomes

University of Cincinnati

 

Sonya Panjwani

Texas A&M University

 

Jennifer Lachance

University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health

 

Patricia Stauber

University of New Mexico

 

Audrey Buckland

Johns Hopkins University

 

Sarah Wetter

Georgetown Law

 

Ashley Chory

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

 

Lisa M. Jordan

Drew University

 

Rachel T. Forrest

Westminster College

 

Holly Jarman

University of Michigan

 

Scott Greer

University of Michigan

 

Sowmya Adibhatla

Wisconsin Department of Health Services

 

Luu Doan Ireland

UMass Memorial Medical Center

 

Charity Scott

Georgia State University College of Law

 

Marjorie Shultz

University of California Berkeley

 

Vivian Valdmanis

Western Michigan University

 

Jennifer Neczypor

Massachusetts General Hospital

 

Lena A Hatchett

Loyola University Chicago

 

Leslie Cofie

East Carolina University

 

Judith N Wasserheit

University of Washington

 

Wu Zeng

Georgetown University School of Nursing & Health Studies

 

Laura Hermanns

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

 

Adnan Hyder

George Washington University Milken Institute School of Public Health

 

Sara Slabisak

Lewis & Clark Law School

 

Gregg Gonsalves

Yale University

 

Tom McDonnell
Elisabeth Haub School of Law at Pace University

 

Meredith Rosenthal

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

 

David Stein

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

 

Theresa Glennon

Temple University Beasley School of Law

 

Myron Falchuk

Harvard Medical School